10 Key Answers to: What Do Lutherans Believe?

10 Key Answers to: What Do Lutherans Believe?

Lutherans, like all Christians, share a diverse spectrum of beliefs that may differ depending on their denomination or branch of faith. However, there are ten fundamental principles that unite Lutheran theology and serve as a strong foundation for believers. Following are ten commonly held beliefs that lie at the core of Lutheran theology.


Lutheran Sacraments

What do Lutherans believe?

  1. Guided by the principles outlined in "Sola Scriptura: Lutherans put the Bible at the forefront, acknowledging it as the ultimate authority in understanding matters of faith and doctrine.

  2. Justification by Faith Alone: Central to Lutheran theology is the belief that salvation is attained solely through faith, regardless of individual actions or merits. This principle was a significant point of contention during the Protestant Reformation.

  3. The Sacraments: Baptism and the Lord's Supper (Holy Communion) are the two sacraments recognized by Lutherans, seen as channels of God's grace that strengthen and sustain the faith of believers.

  4. The priesthood of all believers: Lutherans emphasize that all baptized Christians are part of a "priesthood of all believers," granting direct access to God and a calling to serve others in the name of Christ.

  5. The Trinity: Lutherans affirm the orthodox Christian doctrine of the Trinity, acknowledging the one God existing in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

  6. The Creeds: The Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed are commonly affirmed by Lutherans as accurate summaries of Christian doctrine.

  7. Grace: Emphasizing the concept of God's grace, Lutherans teach that salvation is a gift freely given by God and not something earned through human effort.

  8. Predestination: While there may be differing views on predestination among Lutheran denominations, many hold to the belief that God has ultimate knowledge and control over who will be saved.

  9. The Church: Lutherans view the church as a community of believers gathered around the Word and Sacraments, rather than a structured institution or hierarchy.

  10. The Second Coming: Lutherans anticipate the return of Jesus Christ, when there will be a final judgment and the establishment of God's everlasting kingdom.


Lutherans hold a variety of beliefs, but there are ten fundamental principles that unite their theology. These include a strong emphasis on the Bible as the ultimate authority, salvation through faith alone, the importance of Baptism and Holy Communion, the priesthood of all believers, belief in the Trinity and the creeds, the concept of grace, differing views on predestination, viewing the church as a community rather than an institution, and the anticipation of Jesus Christ's Second Coming. These beliefs are foundational to Lutheran theology, though there may be variations in emphasis or interpretation among different Lutheran churches and theologians.



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Please Note: Nothing replaces having and reading your own Bible. Therefore, the purpose of these articles is to help strengthen your desire to read scripture daily and learn how to seek and find answers to your spiritual questions there. Through reading God’s word, we begin to understand HIS love for us and develop a personal relationship with HIM. If you are not a Chistian and would like to know more about Christianity or the Bible, we encourage you to start by finding a local Christian community, visiting a Christian church and seeking out ways to learn more about the Gospel of Jesus Christ and his ministry.